As of halfway through the decade of the nineteen eighties, a series of cinematographic practices, as well as some renovated theoretical positions, had altered the face of that which was then known as the documentary. The discourse of the documentary had penetrated postmodernity. This monograph has gathered some of the main lines of theoretical development of what has happened since then. Academics are not the only ones to have thought about these new practices. This was a watershed moment as of which it has become increasingly difficult to use the term documentary to encompass a series of practices which obviously surpass the limits of what is traditionally embraced by this term; and all of this is perfectly reflected in the fact that, for the first time in a long time, filmmakers not only make their movies, but they also think about them. Even if this practice had been habitual during certain contexts (such as the Russian avant-garde), what is certain is that with the passing of time that practice had been abandoned, practice and theory had become disassociated (obviously with honorable exceptions like, for example, Jonas Mekas).